I'm having trouble understanding the simple "planetary" model of the atom that I'm being taught in my basic chemistry course.
What you're thinking is right. You only know high school science right now, and it is in the ncert that Bohr model couldn't explain the same things you are confused at, thats why there was Quantum Mechanics for the study of atom.
What the hell is happening here? Since there is no separate section to comment, I will have to express my disregard toward this question and the answer given by "Ashug Suri".
OP copied the question from here and the other person copied the solution to this question from the same site!
I would suggest students who are genuinely looking for a doubt clearing platform to go to more authentic doubt clearing platforms like physicsforums or stackexchange sites.